The Digital Media Project



Phil Merrill


TRU Cards




In response to Martin's remarks regarding categorizations' several benefits, I had the odd thought that we could actually make a deck of cards out of the TRUs. These could be printed on cardstock. The back could be marked "comments:" and give room for comments. The front would summarize its unique TRU. It took a certain arrogance for me to believe I could so perfectly split things into categories. I now know of course that my categorization has a great deal of ad hoc rationalization in it, although by and large I like my categories (we could rename them), so here goes:

Eight suits. Each has 11 cards. The "1" is special. Otherwise, larger numbers have higher ranks. The suits are: Authors, Criticism, Devices, Modesty, Ownership, Performers, Services and Users.

A1 - 22 TRU to be recognized as the author (paternity)
A2 - 11 TRU of attribution
A3 - 23 TRU not to be miscredited as the author (misattribution)
A4 - 32 TRU of withdrawal/objection
A5 - 42 TRU of equitable remuneration
A6 - 59 TRU of moral rights
A7 - 37 TRU of contractual commerce
A8 - 36 TRU of distribution
A9 - 35 TRU of economic exploitation
A10 - 34 TRU of reproduction
A11 - 24 TRU for the author's work not to be tampered with (integrity)

C1 - 01 TRU to quote
C2 - 56 TRU of authenticity of content guaranteed
C3 - 72 TRU to access information about content
C4 - 73 TRU to share content with members of a group
C5 - 55 TRU to access content in libraries
C6 - 54 TRU of copying for classroom instruction
C7 - 68 TRU to assign content description
C8 - 33 TRU of fair use
C9 - 47 TRU of factual reporting
C10 - 13 TRU to annotate for personal use
C11 - 14 TRU to edit for personal use

D1 - 05 TRU to make playback device
D2 - 78 TRU contracting for middle-men to broadcast
D3 - 79 TRU contracting for middle-men to publish
D4 - 80 TRU contracting for middle-men to release
D5 - 81 TRU contracting for middle-men to promote
D6 - 85 TRU to syndication
D7 - 71 TRU to attach playback devices of one's choice to a network
D8 - 06 TRU to choose playback device
D9 - 70 TRU to run applications of one's choice
D10 - 31 TRU of reverse engineering
D11 - 67 TRU to make content creation device

M1 - 08 TRU to communicate privately
M2 - 12 TRU of anonymity
M3 - 52 TRU of unpublished recording
M4 - 75 TRU to choose security
M5 - 69 TRU to access content of one's choice
M6 - 48 TRU to restrict access to unpublished material
M7 - 30 TRU to freedom from monitoring
M8 - 27 TRU to make prohibited content inaccessible
M9 - 18 TRU to apply a rating to a piece of content
M10 - 10 TRU to use content anonymously
M11 - 09 TRU to publish content anonymously

O1 - 19 TRU of continued access
O2 - 16 TRU that sales displays will follow acceptable practice
O3 - 15 TRU not to be counterfeited
O4 - 44 TRU of reasonable modification
O5 - 49 TRU of lending
O6 - 60 TRU of rental
O7 - 86 TRU to choose mode of economic compensation
O8 - 87 TRU to determine context of use
O9 - 84 TRU not to apply DRM to a piece of content
O10 - 25 TRU of "First sale"/Personal loan
O11 - 07 TRU to use content whose copyright has expired

P1 - 43 TRU of reputation
P2 - 66 TRU to restrict time of use
P3 - 65 TRU to restrict place of use
P4 - 64 TRU to compel real-time only consumption
P5 - 63 TRU to distribute lower-resolution copies only
P6 - 61 TRU of communication to the public
P7 - 46 TRU of parody
P8 - 50 TRU of translation
P9 - 76 TRU to restrict adaptation
P10 - 77 TRU to restrict performance
P11 - 45 TRU of first publication/disclosure

S1 - 17 TRU to be ignorant of usage
S2 - 39 TRU of respect for sale royalties terms and conditions
S3 - 40 TRU of respect for performance royalties terms and conditions
S4 - 41 TRU of respect for resale royalties terms and conditions
S5 - 62 TRU of applying technological access restrictions
S6 - 82 TRU of adaptation
S7 - 74 TRU to improve end-user experience
S8 - 51 TRU of regional pricing
S9 - 38 TRU of reciprocal protection
S10 - 29 TRU to digital media rental
S11 - 28 TRU to time based advertising

U1 - 02 TRU to make personal copy
U2 - 04 TRU to time shift content
U3 - 03 TRU to space shift content
U4 - 53 TRU of developing nations exception
U5 - 88 TRU to make a print of a video scene (repurposing)
U6 - 83 TRU of performance
U7 - 58 TRU to choose the delivery system
U8 - 57 TRU to choose the service
U9 - 26 TRU to transcode
U10 - 21 TRU of freedom of art
U11 - 20 TRU of political freedom







Name of TRU

TRU to quote


Summary description of TRU

Right to reproduce limited portions of another author's work, for a variety of reasons, and in a variety of ways usually involving some attribution. Permission from the original author is not required, however exercise of the quote TRU exposes the quoting author to possible legal challenges.






(1) Economic Liberty  
(2) Limits on Economic Liberty  
(3) Personal Liberty  
(4) Limits on Personal Liberty  
(5) Societal Interests